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Belarus: Russian Protectorate Or Sovereign State?

Foreword

An original version of this publication was written in Belarusian language by InformNapalm volunteer, who comes from the Republic of Belarus. It was first published under the title “Беларусь: пратэктарат Расеі ці сувэрэннае дзяржаўнае ўтварэньне?” [1] (Belarus: Russian protectorate or sovereign state?). It seems interesting that during the first week of its presence in Belarus segment of Internet this text has successfully provoked disputes and was noticed not only by media, but also Russian security services. Information about this publication, including an interview with its author Dzianis Ivashyn, was published by ‘Radio freedom’ and a number of other media sources. A quick reaction also came from the pro-Russian media, which tried to call InformNapalm volunteers ‘overseas strategist’ for our attempt to name those people from Belarus higher rank positions, who graduated from the Russian military education institutions. It is interesting that the Russian publications said that articles, written by the Belarus editorial office of InformNapalm, were in ‘old Belarus language’. This could probably be explained by difficulties of understanding the national and state language of Belarus by Russians.

As a result, we decided to translate this material to other languages too, including Russian and English.

It is easy to notice active attempts to manipulate the public opinion in Belarus lately, this is especially seen when it comes to the topic of the war between Russia and Ukraine. These manipulations are organized by different political forces and the state apparatus with an aim to preserve the regime of internal occupation and to prevent any social protests. I do hope that this material will help to prevent these manipulations and will allow readers to imagine the place of Belarus in the modern post-Soviet geopolitical configuration.

The article lists a number of officials of the higher military political leadership, law enforcement institutions of the Republic of Belarus. The criteria which we used to add them to the list were: place of birth out of the present day Belarus territory, higher (military) education received in the Russian Federation. This means that the data base includes people who were not born in Belarus as well as those who graduated from Russian military education institutions. The base also includes officials, who are former KGB functionaries, members of communist party and persons related to financial and diplomatic Russian-Belarus circles. In order to write this material I used the article 34 of the Belarus constitution, which allows each citizen of Belarus to obtain, keep and spread full, true and actual information about the activity of state institutions, as well as information, contained in officially published sources of ministries and state institutions.

I would like to underline that this article does not contain any opinion about named persons. The could be either agents of Russian influence, either Belarus patriots. A person could be born in Russia but live in Belarus and be a bearer of Belarus national values, as it was demonstrated by the way a famous poetess Natalia Arsenieva or a well-known musician Vladimir Mulyavin lived their lives. But still we should admit that they both did not have Russian military education. A reader has a possibility to decide personally and to answer the question, posed in the title of this article. The only thing a reader should understand is that Russian influence agent is, first of all, an official, who systematically works and performs duties, connected to reaching aims and tasks of Russian Federation.

So, let us start.

Higher Command of the Armed Forces (AF) of the Republic of Belarus

Ravkov Andrey Alekseevich – major-general, minister of defense of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1967 in the village of Reviaki, Beshenkovichskiy area, Briansk region of the Belarus SSR. In the year 2005 graduated with honors from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Belokonev Oleg Alekseevich – major-general, head of the General Staff of the AF of Republic of Belarus, first deputy minister of defense of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1965 in the village of Barabash, Khasanski area of Primorski kray, Russian SSR.

Puzikov Mikhail Alekseevich – major-general, deputy minister of defense of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1961 in the village of Gorodishe 1-e of the Brasovski area of Briansk region, Russian SSR. In the year 2005 graduated with honors from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Lotenkov Igor Nikolaevich – major-general, deputy minister of defense for combat material – head of the combat material of the Armed Forces of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1962 in the village of Zapesoch’e of Zhytkovichski area of Homel’ region, Belarus SSR. In the year 2007 graduated with honors from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Kireev Vitaliy Ivanovich – major-general, deputy minister of defense for rear area – head of the rear of the AF of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1962 in Magadan, Russian SSR.

All of the named persons make 100% of the higher command of the AF of Republic of Belarus.

Let us now turn to the General Staff of the AF of the Republic of Belarus. There is an open access information about heads of 8 departments. Besides the head of the General Staff Belokonev O.A., who was already mentioned, the list contains:

Muraveiko Pavel Nikolaevich – colonel, deputy head of the General Staff of the AF, head of the main operative department. Born in 1971 in Mar’ina Gorka of Pukhovichski area of Minsk region, Belarus SSR. In the year 2008 graduated with honors and a gold medal from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Tikhonov Viktor Pavlovich – colonel, head of the Main Intelligence Directorate, deputy head of the General Staff of Republic of Belarus. The date and place of birth are unknown. Graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Kosygin Ruslan Anatolievich – colonel, head of the informational-analytical directorate of the General Staff of the AF of Belarus. Born in 1968 in Yalta, Crimea region, Ukrainian SSR.

Kazakov Gennadiy Stanislavovich – major-general, head of communication department of the AF of Republic of Belarus, head of the communication directorate of the General Staff of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1964 in the village of Semukachi of Mogilev area of Mogilev region, Belarus SSR. During the years 2003-2005 was a cadet of the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Dudko Sergey Grigorievich – colonel, head of the territorial defense command – deputy head of the General Staff of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1960. The place of birth (according to unconfirmed information) is a village of Zaporozhye of the Krashy Luch municipal council of Luhansk region, Ukrainian SSR. At this time, this territory is occupied by the pro-Russian terrorist organization “Luhansk people’s republic”. Graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation. Participated in Soviet intervention to Afghanistan.

Danylchik Igor Ivanovich – colonel, head of the electronic warfare department of the General Staff of the AF of Belarus. Born in 1969 in the village of Lvovka of Volkovysski area, Grodno region, Belarus SSR. Graduated from Gagarin Air Force academy of the Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation.

Starkov Viacheslav Nikolayevich – colonel, head of the NBC protection forces – head of the NBC protection and ecology department of the General Staff of the AF of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1967 in the town of Tambov, Russian SSR. During the years 2007-2009 was a cadet of the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Lukianenko Dmitriy Leonidovich – colonel, head of the navigational topographic department of the General Staff of the AF of Belarus. The date and place of birth are unknown. In the year 2009 graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation with honors.

Now let us turn to the Ground Forces. The list includes the minimal number of higher command.

Volfovich Aleksandr Grigorievich – major-general, commander of the North-West operative command forces. Born in 1967 in Kazan, Russian SSR. In the year 2008 graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation with honors.

Shkandovich Vitaliy Nikolayevich – colonel, deputy commander of rear forces – head of the rear directorate of the North-West operative command. Born in 1970 in the town of Kirovsk of Mogilev region, Belarus SSR. During the period from 2008 to 2010 studied in the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Orekh Vladimir Mikhailovich – colonel, deputy commander of rear forces – head of the rear directorate of the Western operative command. Born in 1969 in Bobruisk of Mogilev region, Belarus SSR. In the year 2011 graduated with honors from the federal state military educational institution of higher professional education “Army general Khrulev military academy of rear and transport” of the Ministry of defense of Russian Federation.

 

Air Force and Air Defense forces:

Dvigalev Oleg Nikolaevich – major-general, Air Force and Air defense forces commander. Born in 1965 on the island of Vitte, Severomorsk area of Murmansk region, Russian SSR.

Trus Sergey Nikolaevich – major-general, head of the main staff – first deputy commander of Air Force and Air defense forces. Born in 1965 in Minsk, Belarus SSR. In the year 2008 graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Golub Igor Vladimirovich – major-general, deputy commander of the Air Force and Air Defense forces. Born in 1967 in Chernihiv, Ukrainian SSR.

Karev Aleksandr Mikhailovich – colonel, deputy commander of the Air Force and Air Defense – Air Force commander. Born in 1966, according to the unconfirmed information, the place of birth is the village of Kameshok of Kemerovo region, Russian SSR.

Shevchenko Valeriy Aleksandrovich – colonel, deputy commander of the Air Force and Air Defense forces for ideology – head of directorate. Born in 1969 in Chelyabinsk, Russian SSR.

Budaev Boris Yurievich – colonel, deputy commander of the Air Force and Air Defense forces for ammunition – head of directorate. Born in a military settlement near Dushanbe, Tajikistan. In the year 2010 graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Panfiorov Aleksandr Ivanovich – colonel, deputy commander of the Air Force and Air Defense forces in rear – head of directorate. Born in 1968 in the town of Antonovo of Zagorski area of Moscow region, Russian SSR.

 

Special Operations Forces

Denysenko Vadim Ivanovich – major-general, commander of special operations forces of the AF of Republic of Belarus. Born on 1967 in Budapest, Hungarian People’s Republic. In the year 2008 graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation with honors.

 

Other heads of directorates and institutions of the Ministry of Defense:

Salatin Vitaliy Anatolievich – colonel, head of the main personnel directorate of the Ministry of Defense of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1965 in Stavropol, Russian SSR.

Lepeshko Gennadiy Vladimirovich – colonel, head of the military education directorate of the AF of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1965 in Pinsk of Brest region, Belarus SSR. Graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Khokhlov Valeriy Alekseevich — major-general, head of the main directorate for the combat training of the AF of Republic of Belarus. The date and place of birth are unknown. In the year 2001 graduated with honors from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Baranov Vladimir Konstantinovich – colonel, head of directorate for the rocket-artillery ammunition of the Ministry of Defense of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1965 in Smolensk, Russian SSR.

Ivanov Viacheslav Anatolievich – colonel, head of automobile directorate of the Ministry of Defense of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1964 in Kopeysk, Chelyabinsk region, Russian SSR.

Gordiunin Aleksandr Viacheslavovich – colonel, head of food supply directorate of the Ministry of Defense of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1965 in the town of Balakovo of Saratov region, Russian SSR.

Chernukha Yuriy Alekseevich – colonel, head of the National agency for control and inspections – head of the department of the Ministry of Defense of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1969 in Yakutsk, Russian SSR.

Bobrikov Sergey Valentinovich – major-general, head of educational institution “Military academy of Republic of Belarus”. Born in 1962 in the town of Lepel of Vitebsk region, Belarus SSR. In the year 2005 graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

 

State border guard committee of Republic of Belarus:

Maltsev Leonid Semenovich – colonel-general, chairman of the state border guard committee of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1949 in the village of Venetevka of Slonimski area, Grodno region, Belarus SSR. In the year 1992 graduated with honors from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation. He is also a member of the academy of military science of Russian Federation.

Moiseenko Vladimir Grigorievich – major-general, deputy chairman of the state border guard committee of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1964 in Grodno, Belarus SSR. In the year 1985 graduated from Golitsyn higher border guard military-political school of KGB USSR in the name of Voroshylov. In the year 1997 graduated from the Academy of the federal border guard service of Russia (Border guard academy of Russian FSB).

Lappo Anatoliy Petrovich – major-general, deputy chairman of the state border guard committee of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1963 in the village of Kulakovka of Belynichski area, Mogilev region, Belarus SSR. In the year 1986 graduated from the Golitsyn higher border guard military-political school of KGB USSR in the name of Voroshylov. In the year 2001 graduated from the Academy of the federal border guard service of Russia. During a period from 1981 to 1992 served on different positions in Transcaucasian border guard district of KGB USSR.

Pechen Igor Nikolaevich – major-general, deputy chairman of the state border guard committee of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1965 in Smolensk, Russian SSR. In the year 2009 graduated from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Yatskov Viktor Nikolaevich – colonel, deputy commander of the Lidski border guard squad, head of the regime and supply organization directorate. Born in 1971 in the town of Molodovo, Brest region, Belarus SSR. In the year 1992 graduated from Golitsyn higher border guard military-political school of KGB USSR in the name of Voroshylov. In the year 2001 graduated from the Academy of the federal border guard service of Russia (Border guard academy of Russian FSB).

Kuzmenko Aleksey Viktorovich – colonel, head of the Gomel border guard group. Born in 1972 in Gomel, Belarus SSR. In the year 1995 graduated from Riazan’ higher school of airborne command, served in Airborne forces of Russia. In the year 2008 graduated from the Border guard academy of Russian FSB.

Protosovitski Andrey Nikolaevich – colonel, deputy commander of Gomel border guard group, head of ideology work and personnel supply department. Born in 1973 in the town of Repki, Chernihiv region, Ukrainian SSR. In the year 1994 graduated from Omsk higher combined arms command school.

Tereshchenko Andrey Aleksandrovich – colonel, deputy commander of Gomel border guard group, head of regime and organizational supply department. Born in 1967 in Simferopol, Ukrainian SSR. During aperiod from 1988 to 1991 served on different position in Western border guard district of the KGB USSR, military unit # 2187 (town of Brest).

Molostov Konstantin Gennadievich – colonel, commander of Grodno border guard group. Born in 1970 in Krasnoarmeysk of Saratov region, Russian SSR. During a period from 1989 to 1993 studied at Dzierzhynski Almaty higher border guard command school of KGB USSR. In the year 2004 graduated from the Border guard academy of Russian FSB.

Rydkin Aleksandr Anatolievich – lieutenant-colonel, deputy commander of Smorgon border guard group, head of regime and organizational supply directorate. Born in 1978 in the town of Osipovichi of Mogilev region, Belarus SSR. In the year 2009 graduated from the Budenny Military communication academy of the Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation.

As we can see, the substantial number of people listed above are a part of the committee higher command and are possible to have direct connections to Russian FSB.

 

State military-industrial committee of Republic of Belarus:

Gurulev Sergey Petrovich – lieutenant-general, chairman of the State military-industrial committee. Born in 1953 on the station Olovianaya, Chita region, Russian SSR. In the year 1999 graduated with honors and a gold medal from the Military academy of the General Staff of Russian Federation.

Bykov Igor Mikhailovich – first deputy chairman of the military-industrial committee. Born in 1957 in the family of a military serviceman in the town of Klin, Moscow region, Russian SSR.

Morozov Oleg Vladimirovich – deputy chairman of the military-industrial committee. Born in 1978 in the town of Severodvinsk, Russian SSR.

 

Ministry of Internal Affairs of Republic of Belarus:

Shunevich Igor Anatolievich – police major-generalm minister of Internal affairs of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1967 in Luhansk region, Ukrainian SSR. During the years 2007-2012 worked in a KGB of Republic of Belarus, where he headed the investigations directorate and then the main directorate for counter-intelligence supply of law enforcement and controlling services, anti-corruption and anti organized crime activity.

Karaev Yuriy Khadzhymuratovich – major-general, deputy minister of Internal affairs, commander of internal troops. Born in 1966 in Vladikavkaz, Northern Ossetia, Russian SSR. Graduated from Saratov higher military command school of the Ministry of Internal affairs of the USSR. In the year 1996 graduated from the Frunze Military academy, Russian Federation.

Khomenko Cergey Nikolaevich – major-general, head of the security department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1966 in Donetsk region, Ukrainian SSR.

Bachyla Vladimir Vladimirovich – police major-general, head of the Ministry of Internal affairs academy of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1960 in the village of Lipky, Minsk region, Belarus SSR. In the year 1994 graduated from postgraduate military program of Moscow higher police school of the Ministry of Internal affairs of Russian Federation.

Polishchuk Valeriy Nikolaevich – police major-general, head of the Mogilev institute of the Ministry of Internal affairs of Republicof Belarus. Born in 1963 in the village of Priozernoe, Tobolski area, Kustanayski region, Kazakhstan.

Oleinikov German Gennadievich – police colonel, deputy head of the Directorate of internal affairs of the Grodno regional executive committee. Head of the ideology and personnel supply directorate. Born in 1967 in the village of Slavianka, Khasanovski area, Primorski krai, Russian SSR.

Yevseev Igor Vladimirovich – police major-general, head of the Directorate of internal affairs of the Minsk regional executive committee. Born in 1968 in the village of Ros, Volkovysski area, Grodno region, Belarus SSR. Served in the 3rd special forces brigade of the Main Intelligence directorate of the USSR Air force, which was deployed in the GDR. Coordinated, commanded and participated in the dispersal of mass protests in 2010, “Stop fuel” actions, silent protests in 2011. Was included in the sanctions list of the EU under number 84, he is also not allowed to enter the EU. Until recent time headed the Directorate of internal affairs of the Vitebsk regional executive committee, during the elections campaign of 2015 was again moved to Minsk.

Senko Viktor Sergeevich – police colonel, head of the Directorate of Internal affairs of the Vitebsk regional executive committee. Born in 1965, in the town of Karaganda, Kazakh SSR.

As we can see, the key positions of the Ministry of Internal affairs are occupied by people, who were born outside of Belarus.

 

Ministry of emergency situations of Republic of Belarus

Vashchenko Vladimir Aleksandrovich – internal service major-general. Minister of emergency situations. Born in 1958 in the village of Troitsko-Pechersk, Komi ASSR, Russian SSR.

Presidium of ministers’ council of Republic of Belarus:

Kobiakov Andrey Vladimirovich – prime-miniser of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1960 in Moscow in the family of a serviceman, who was then sent to serve in Belarus military district. In the year 1983 graduated with honors from the Moscow aviation institute. During the period of 2011-2012 served as extraordinary and plenipotentiary ambassador of Republic of Belarus to Russian Federation.

Matiushevski Vasiliy Stanislavovich – first deputy prime-minister of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1969 in Orsha, Vitebsk region, Belarus SSR. During the period from 2010 to 2014 was a chairman of the board and a director general of the OAO “BPS-Bank”, owned by Sberbank of Russia.

Rusyi Mikhail Ivanovich – deputy prime-minister of Republic of Belaurus. Born in 1954 in the village of Voronino, Zhytkovichski area, Belarus SSR. During the period from 1985 to 1991 was a party functionary of an area committee of the communist party of Belarus. During the period from 2003 to 2004 was a department advisor in the Belarus Embassy to Russia in St.Petersburg.

Anfimov Leonid Vasilievich – chairman of the committee for the state control. Born in 1954 in the village of Sima, Yuriev-Podolski area, Vladimirska region, Russian SSR. During the period from 1984 to 1986 was an instructor of the industrial-transport department of Zavodskoi area committee of communist party of Belarus in Minsk.

 

Security Council of Republic of Belarus

Zas’ Stanislav Vasilievich – major-general, acting state secretary of the Security Council of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1964 in Chernihiv region, Ukrainian SSR. The exact place of birth in unknown. In the year 2005 graduated with honors and a gold medal from the Military academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation.

Vtiurin Andrey Aleksandrovich – colonel, deputy state secretary of the Security Council of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1971 in the town of Penza, Russian SSR. In the year 1992 graduated from Saratov higher military command school of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russian Federation. Since the year 1995 serves in a security service of the President of Republic of Belarus, which he was head of from 2007 to 2014.

 

President’s Security service

Shynkevich Viktor Nikolaevich – colonel, head of the President’s Security Service. Born in 1960 in the village of Kromovichi, Dokshytski area, Vitebsk region, Belarus SSR. In the year 1987 graduated from the higher KGB USSR courses. Serves in the Belarus president’s Security service since 1995.

 

Committee of State Security of Republic of Belarus (KGB)

Vakulchak Valeriy Pavlovich – head of the KGB of Republic of Belarus. Born in 1964 in the village of Radostovo, Drogichinski area, Brest region. In the year 1992 graduated from Higher KGB USSR courses of counter-intelligence. During the period from 1991 to 2008 served in security services. During the period from 2008 to 2011 headed the operative-analytical center (OAC).

There is no open access biographical information about all members of the KGB, OAC, President’s Security service command. Those structures are completely free from public control. And we can only guess what are their activities, aims and tasks.

The analysis of this list of people shows that Belarus higher military-political leadership fatally lacks people, who were born in Belarus. Meanwhile, nearly all of those few people, who were born in Belarus, have gone through the ideological educational apparatus of Russian Federation. We have a lot of signs showing that Belarus has an external colonial system of rule.

Belarus Armed forces are integrated to the regional Belarus-Russia military group [2]. Combined military trainings [3] are being regularly organized. They include operational coordination training [4] of Russian and Belarus military units. Main units of Russian invasion forces, which participated in occupation of parts of Georgian and Ukrainian territories take part in military parades in Minsk [5]. Besides that, Belarus has confirmed its allied obligations with Russia in a new law “On martial law [6]”, which says that an aggression against a member of the CSTO is considered to be an aggression against Belarus. And moreover, not so long ago, on September 8th, during the meeting of the Eurasian intergovernmental council in Grodno prime-ministers of Russian and Belarus were discussing a creation of a Russian Air force base on the territory of Belarus [7], which will give a possibility to conduct military operations both in Ukraine and in Baltic states.

Because of everything mentioned here and because of a possible threat of the use of Belarus territory as a foothold for an advance on Kyiv and separation of the territory of Western Ukraine, Ukrainian armed forces are constrained to keep a substantial military group near the border of Belarus and in Western regions and can not use it in the anti-terrorist operation zone or near the administrative border of the occupied Crimea and state border with Transnistria.

I am sure that the amount of information presented here is enough for the reader to answer those questions, which were posed in the introduction. And I hope that this article will help to resist to manipulative technologies and speculations, which concern the role, played by higher state officials, in determining the internal and international policy.

 

Original article [8] by Denis Ivashin [9], translated by Maksym Sviezhentsev