This is the final (5th) part of our review of the key achievements of Ukraine’s defense industry in 2017. We have reviewed the 2017 performance of more than one hundred Ukroboronprom production facilities, dozens of plants represented in the Ukraine Defense Industry League, Ukraine Munition and Military Equipment Manufacturers Association, some Ukrainian developers and defense industry plants. We have gathered and analyzed a lot of open-source information to demonstrate that Ukraine is rapidly developing its military technology potential and improving its defense capability against the backdrop of Russia’s aggression. A strong army is needed for the liberation of the national territory, because “You can get much farther with a kind word and a gun than you can with a kind word alone.”
The first and second parts of our review were dedicated to achievements of Ukraine defense industry’s armored vehicle, aircraft building and repair branches. In Part 3, we analyzed the achievements of radar, radio communication, and air defense industries. Part 4 presented major achievements in the development of precision-guided munitions and small arms and in the shipbuilding branch. In the final part, part 5, we will tell you about major advanced munitions and military equipment designed by Ukraine’s defense industry.
Major research and development in munitions and military equipment
Despite the continuing Russian aggression, not only Ukraine’s defense industry continues to meet the country’ defense procurement needs, supplying the Ukrainian army with rebuilt and upgraded military equipment and munitions, but also intensively develops and puts into production new state-of-the-art weapons. The priceless military experience in resisting the Russian aggression acquired over the past four years helps improve newly-designed Ukrainian military hardware and strengthen the Army’s defense capability.
In 2017, Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau completed factory trials of BTR-4MB1 armored personnel carrier (APC) designed and produced based on the experience of real-life combat deployment, in the east of Ukraine, of series-produced BTR-4E APCs and state-of-the-art technical solutions in line with NATO standards.
The key advantages of the new APC include much better armor; new front module benefiting from improved ballistic protection; all-round view through five laminated-glass windows backed up with a digital all-round vision system; new OEP-VN optical and electronic sight (designed by Izyum instrument-making plant) featuring a powerful thermal imager coupled with high-precision firing system and a laser range finder. According to Ukrainian Defense Minister Stepan Poltorak, the new BTR-4MB1 APCs will be procured for the Ukrainian Armed Forces in 2018.
The video below shows how BTR-4MB1 APCs perform off-road and in combat.
NVO Praktyka (Kyiv) unveiled at the International Defense Industry Fair (IDEF) in Turkey its in-house project, Ataman APC, a major upgrade of BTR-60 APC, inheriting from the Soviet predecessor only its 8×8 chassis.
The new APC’s body is made of advanced armor steel providing protection from 7.62 mm bullets and 155-mm shell bursts at a distance of 80 meters or more (STANAG 4569 level II by NATO standards). It should be particularly noted that, unlike the original BTR-60 APC whose underbelly had no armor, Ataman APC benefits from a multilayered reinforced underbelly absorbing the blast energy and protecting the crew from splinters. The location of the engine compartment and the troop-carrying compartment has been changed: they are in the vehicle’s front right-hand part and rear part, respectively, with crew leaving the APC through the rear doors.The APC is powered by a 238-hp Iveco diesel engine fitted with a special hydrostatic transmission. The new vehicle has inherited the amphibious capabilities of its predecessor. On the armament side, it features state-of-the-art BM-3M Shturm-M remote-controlled combat module which comes with a 30-mm ZTM-1 automatic cannon, KBA-117 automatic grenade launcher, twin-barreled 7.62-mm KT machine gun and two Barrier ATGM systems.
Last year, Zhytomyr Armor Repair Plant completed factory trials of BMP-1UMD infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) being a major upgrade of the original BMP-1. The new IFV features a Stilet combat module which comes with a 30-mm ZTM-1 automatic cannon, 30-mm grenade launcher, 7.62-mm machine gun and a Barrier anti-tank missile system.
This armament is capable of engaging not only the enemy’s personnel and light-armored combat vehicles but also the enemy’s tanks within 5 km.Aiming and weapons control is done with Trek-M fire-control system. The IFV is equipped with a Deutz (Germany) engine, new secure digital communication system and state-of-the-art navigation equipment. The new vehicle provides a better protection for the crew and has infrared camouflage. The IFV also features Myslyvets (the Ukrainian for “Hunter”) digital fire-control system which detects and tracks targets automatically.
Strazh, a tank support combat vehicle, was unveiled in October 2017 at the Arms and Security-2017 international exhibition in Kyiv. The armored vehicle was designed by Kyiv and Zhytomyr armor repair plants to deliver covering fire to protect tanks on the battlefield and destroy the highest ground and air threats, ranging from anti-tank missile system crews to light-armored combat vehicles and helicopters.
Strazh was designed on the basis of T-64 main battle tank (MBT). The vehicle comes with a Duplet combat module consisting of a 30-mm ZTM-2 twin-barreled automatic cannon with the firing rate of 550 rounds per minute, two 7.62 mm KT machine guns aligned with the cannon, KBA-117 automatic grenade launcher, four-barrel Barrier ATGM system capable of engaging targets at a distance of up to 5 km and six 81-mm smoke grenade dischargers. Strazh is powered by a 700-hp engine accelerating to 62 km/h. The crew consists of 3 men. The vehicle’s combat weight is 33 tons.
BRDM-NIK armored reconnaissance vehicle (being a major upgrade of BRDM-2) was unveiled by Mykolayiv Armor Repair Plant at the Arms and Security-2017 exhibition.
With a cruising range of 1100 km and powered by a 150-hp 4-cylinder Iveco Tector diesel engine accelerating the heavy 8.2-ton vehicle up to 100 km/h, BRDM-NIK will perform scouting missions and escort convoys. The armored vehicle is capable of crossing water obstacles at a maximum water propulsion speed of 12 km/h. The fully redesigned front part of the vehicle benefits from reinforced front armor and add-on armor elements. BRDM-NIK is armed with a Falkonet remote weapon system (RWS) comprising a 14.5-mm KPVT heavy machine gun and a 7.62-mm machine gun and can also be armed with a 23-mm auto-cannon RWS. It also has modern digital radio terminals that are reliable and secure.
A new RT-17 MBT (an in-depth upgrade of T-72 by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau (Ukraine), Ukinmash (Ukraine) and Zakłady Mechaniczne Bumar – Łabędy S.A (Poland) in line with NATO standards) debuted at the International Defense Industry Exhibition MSPO-2017 in Kielce (Poland). The tank is armed with a new KBM-2 120-mm cannon made by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau to NATO standards.
The automatic gun loader was completely (and the turret – partially) redesigned to use 120-mm munitions. Changes were also made to the engine and transmission compartment: the tank received an S1000R engine (Poland) with ESM-350M automatic transmission and an additional power plant. The tank also benefits from a new control system and upgraded protection, including reactive armor and electronic systems to counteract enemy’s attacks. The priceless experience acquired during the joint project of Ukraine’s and Poland’s defense industries can also be used to upgrade Ukrainian tanks to NATO standards, from arming them with 120-mm guns to installing modern digital fire control and communications systems made by members of the Alliance.
Last year, Engineering Group Arey patented its in-house project— a T-Rex tank being an in-depth upgrade of T-64, T-64B, T-64BV, T-72 and other MBTs. According to the patent, the tank gets an unmanned turret, with three crew members seated in an armored capsule inside the hull.
The tank’s weight is 2-3 times lower than that of its predecessors – thanks to, among other things, the unmanned turret having a thinner armor. This also gives the tank a boost in speed and maneuverability. The crew capsule has received most of the armor to ensure a better protection for the crew. The capsule also has more room and provides better life support. The tank can be equipped with Nozh and Duplet reactive armor systems and has a new auxiliary power plant, new electronic control and guidance system and a new fire control system. T-Rex is armed with a 125-mm remote-controlled automatically-loaded cannon aligned with a 7.62-mm PKT machine gun. Also, the upper part of the turret has a remote-controlled modular unit that can be fitted with either a 12.7-mm NSV machine gun or a 30-mm automatic grenade launcher, or a MANPADS. Hopefully, Arey will soon sort out its problems and turn the brilliant concept into a prototype.
In November 2017, Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau presented Verba, a multi-purpose multiple-launch rocket system (MLRS) being an upgraded version of BM-21 Grad.
BM-21U Verba MLRS
The system comprises a BM-21U Verba MLRS on KrAZ–6322-010 chassis, BM-21 Grad’s launcher as well as a transporter and loader vehicle (TLV). Verba has an automated sighting system and navigation equipment to quickly determine the enemy’s coordinates. It accelerates up to 85 km/h and has a cruising range of 1,300 km.Verba’s gross weight is 18.5 tons. The full weight of the TLV is 17.2 tons, it is capable of carrying 80 rockets.
Verba’s transporter and loader vehicle
The MLRS is reloaded within just 10 minutes. Verbais expected to go into serial production in H2 2018, after it passes the state trials.
ZRN-01 Stokrotka MLRS designed by the joint effort of GAKHK Artem and WB Group (one of Poland’s major private defense industry producers) was also unveiled at the MSPO-2017 exhibition.This joint product was designed to detect and defeat ground targets (ranging from infantry and light-armored combat vehicles to hardened shelters) and air targets, in the first place, UAVs.
The system has a Ukraine-made radar, Poland-made optics and a fire control system capable of detecting even small UAVs made of composite “transparent” materials within 10 km. Ukrainian unguided rockets RS-80PO produced by GAKHK Artem destroy ground and air targets within 7 km and 4 km respectively. Unlike other similar rockets, these have a programmable detonator and can carry payloads of various types.The unguided rockets are fired from a pair of B8V20 rocket pods, each holding twenty rockets.ZRN-01 Stokrotka MLRS is installed on Poland-made STAR 265M2 all-terrain 6×6 chassis.
In 2017, State Company Ukroboronservice unveiled its new product – UKR-MMC mobile mortar carrier system designed on the basis of Bars-8MMK armored vehicle. The system was designed in cooperation with Everis Aeroespacial y Defensa S.l. (Spain)
It provides counter-fire defense and precision-guided fire support for motorized infantry companies and battalions in the conditions of modern mobile warfare. The system deploys into in-battery position within 35 seconds and leaves the firing position within just 25 seconds. It has a 120-mm 2B11 mortar with a firing range of up to 7.2 km (with standard ammunition). The ammunition comprises 60 projectiles. With an experienced crew, it can fire up to 12 shots per minute. The crew consists of three men.
The carrier has an automated digital fire control system and can be integrated into digital battlefield information exchange systems to receive the enemy’s exact real-time coordinates during combat. The vehicle runs on a 6.7 l Cummins diesel engine (USA) accelerating up to 120 km/h and has STANAG 4569 Level II armor. Full weight is up to 12 tons.
In 2017, LORTA (Lviv, Ukraine) unveiled a highly intelligent new generation system – automated artillery battalion (battery) control system Obolon-2.
Battery gun position officer’s tracked vehicle 1V26-1
The system will providecombat units with all kinds of close and distant real-time reconnaissance data, receiving and processing intelligence data on dozens of targets and combining it with data received from ground and aerial reconnaissance assets and from the higher command. It also supports automated fire planning, assigns targets to each fire unit, and allows combat vehicles to be deployed on the move and open fire within seconds.The system comprises several vehicles, including battalion commander’s vehicle (1V25-2), battalion’s command post vehicle (1V26-2), battery commander’s vehicle (1V25-1) and battery gun position officer’s vehicle (1V26-1).
Battalion’s command post vehicle (1V26-2)
This vehicle can be fitted on tracked chassis to operate with self-propelled artillery units. Obolon-2 incorporates a number of state-of-the-art microelectronics technologies, active semiconductor elements, modern display systems, etc. One of the system’s unique features is its topogeodetic survey system combining both satellite navigation and a proprietary high-precision inertia system at the heart of which lies a US-made gyro course indicator.
The vehicles are fitted with secure jamming-proof modern digital radio terminals allowing both voice and data exchange. The system improves battalions’ and batteries’ fire efficiency by 2-5 times. The Obolon-2 system is perfect for retaliating against provocative artillery and mortar shellings of the Russian aggressor.
A new modification of Phantom unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) was demonstrated at the International Defense Exhibition IDEX-17 in Abu Dhabi (UAE).
One of the key features of the new version is its Barrier ATGM system capable of defeating heavily and light-armored targets within a range of 100 to 5,000 m. It also has a 12.7-mm machine gun and a stabilized rotating platform to accommodate various munitions. All this makes the inconspicuous and mobile UGV rather a dangerous weapon.
In 2017, Spetstekhnoexport (Ukraine) unveiled at UMEX (Unmanned Systems Exhibition and Conference) in Abu Dhabi and at AUSA-2017 (Association of the US Army Exhibition) in Washington a new UGV modification, Phantom-2. This is a further improvement of tactical multipurpose vehicle Phantom designed to carry out reconnaissance, deliver covering fire (with machine guns and anti-tank missiles) and ammunition and evacuate casualties.
Field tests of UGV Phantom-2
Unlike the original 6×6 model, Phantom-2 is an 8×8 vehicle and can also be crawler-mounted. The new UGV has a cruising range of 130 km and is powered by a 80 kW hybrid engine accelerating up to 60 km/h. The vehicle’s gross weight is 2.6 tons. The vehicle is operated via a secure radio channel with an operational range of up to 20 km or via a 5 km long fiber-optic cable. One of its key features is a longer platform carrying greater payloads and accommodating more powerful munitions. Phantom-2 is armed with a MLRS using RS-80PO unguided rockets produced by GAKHK Artem (Ukraine), a twin-barreled 23-mm machine gun and two ATGMs.
This modular combat unit will be used as the basis for new designs and to improve the existing unmanned tactical systems. It can also be used to design and manufacture various modifications of a whole family of military unmanned equipment to perform combat missions without exposing the personnel. It should also be mentioned that these UGVs have made quite a good showing at international exhibitions, demonstrating that Ukraine’s defense industry can design state-of-the-art high-tech military equipment based on, among other things, years of experience in countering Russia’s hybrid aggression.
In 2017, INFOCOM Ltd (Zaporizhia) unveiled its self-propelled remote-controlled platform Laska armed with a proprietary MP01 auto-turret. The turret can accommodate either a 7.62-mm PK-M machine gun with 200 rounds ora light autocannon. Laska is based on a quad chassis. The remote-controlled platform will be used by mechanized infantry units of the ground forces to perform tactical missions, guard and defend the perimeter and to detect and destroy the enemy.
Laska has one wide-angle camera, one narrow-angle camera, a laser range finder and can be equipped with a thermal imager. The unit locks on and tracks the target. It is powered by a 19-hp engine accelerating up to 80 km/h and has a cruising range of 100 km. The in-built battery ensures over 48 hours of operation. The unit’s dimensions are 1,895х1,069х1,350 mm; weight, 310 kg.It is operated remotely at a distance of up to 300 m via a cable or radio channel and is protected from the enemy’s EW systems. The remote-controlled platform can also perform missions in radio silence. Laska has passed all field tests at the Blyznyuky military proving ground in the Zaporizhia Oblast of Ukraine. It will, no doubt, be an efficient tool in the trench warfare waged in the east of Ukraine.
A new KT-112UD light combat helicopter concept (KT112 Combat by international classification) was unveiled by Ukrainian design office Vertikal (Kyiv) at the IDEX-17 International Defense Exhibition in Abu Dhabi.
The helicopter is an upgraded version of the KT-112 Cadet and is designed to destroy air and ground targets, including stationary and modern moving armored targets with combined or monolithic armor, light-armored units and field fortifications. The KT-112UD is powered by twin Rotax 914 (115 hp) series engines, giving it a maximum speed of 200 km/h.
Its payload can include Barrier-V laser-guided anti-tank missiles, small precision-guided bombs, Strela-2 or Igla air-to-air missiles and a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun. Apart from the weaponry, the KT-112UD employs a monitoring system comprising infrared cameras with integrated target designation capability, tactical radio suite and aircraft survivability equipment. Its maximum takeoff weight is 1,000 kg; net weight, 570 kg.
In 2017, Matrix UAV (Kyiv) unveiled a new multipurpose UAV Chimera available in two modifications: Chimera-T and Chimera-H. Chimera-T has a maximum flight height of 150 meters and can remain airborne for up to 14 days receiving power via a cable from a ground power unit.
The UAV is designed to survey the enemy during combat, designate targets and monitor operational environment. With its 30x optical zoom camera at the maximum height of 150 m, Chimera-T has a vision range of up to 45 km. The monitoring can be done both optically and using a radar station. Chimera-T the can be used as a retransmission station for ground forces and maintain contact with other drones via a straight secure communication channel. The UAV can follow the control and power station vehicle at a speed of 15 km/h. The other modification – Chimera-H – is powered by a hybrid (internal combustion engine-based) power unit allowing the UAV to remain airborne up to 4 hours, depending on the payload.
Chimera-H serves to perform reconnaissance missions, monitor operational environment and adjust artillery fire. Depending on the mission, it can be fitted with day- or night-vision optics, laser designator, jammer, direction finder, re-transmitter and a jettison device to deliver high-precision strikes on the enemy’s targets. The UAV has a maximum payload of 5 kg and can travel up to 150 km at approximately 50 km/h. Its full weight is 18 kg.
KB Luch unveiled at the the IDEF-17 International Defense Industry Fair in Turkey a new 107-mm RK-4 Ingul portable rocket grenade launcher designed to defeat light-armored and unarmored equipment: launchers, radars, stationary aviation equipment, motor vehicles, field fortifications (such as pillboxes) and troops, in both open and sheltered conditions.
The use of both high-explosive and thermobaric shells guarantees the destruction of all kinds of targets irrespective of the point of hit. The RK-4 Ingul has an engagement range of 70 to 1800 m and a direct fire range of up to 600 m. The grenade launcher is fitted with a new optical and electronic sight making the operator’s work easier while ensuring high-accuracy hits even at the range limit. In April 2017, ChAO Mayak Plant successfully tested and demonstrated its RPG-M7 light anti-tank grenade launcher concept
It is designed to defeat armored vehicles at close and middle range of up to 500 m. The grenade launcher has the Picatinny rail and a butt for a better aiming accuracy and stability. It can fire 6 grenades per minute and withstands 500 shots.
Last year, Shostka Chemical Products Research Institute unveiled its in-house project – RPV-16 portable infantry flame-thrower capable of defeating the enemy personnel even behind strong fortifications.
The flame-thrower has a 93-mm rocket grenade filled with a thermobaric mixture providing a blast yield on par with a heavy caliber artillery shell. Its effective range of fire is up to 300 m; maximum, up to 1,000 m. Other thermobaric munitions designed in 2017 include RGT-27C and RGT-27C2 grenades (with a weight of up to 600 g) developed by GAKHK Artem.
Hand thermobaric grenades are used to destroy personnel in both open and sheltered conditions of various kinds, motor vehicles and light-armored combat vehicles. The explosion of a thermobaric grenade generates, for several seconds, a fire cloud at 2,500-3,000°C covering a volume of approximately 13 cu.m., thus defeating not only the enemy’s manpower but also its light-armored combat vehicles.
A 60-mm modification of M60-16 Kamerton mortar (designed by ChAO Mayak Plant specially for the Ukrainian Army’s Air Assault Troops and Special Ops Forces) featuring a longer barrel was intensively tested in 2017. The mortar is similar to the US lightweight company mortar in service with the US Marine Corps and will be used to defeat the enemy’s troops and equipment, both in shelters and trenches.
Ithas a range of up to 5.5 km, can fire approximately 25 shells per minute and weighs (fully equipped) 19 kg. One of the mortar’s major strengths is its small size: the mortar does not require a vehicle for transportation. In addition to the paratrooper version, the new 60-mm mortars can have an infantry modification for fixed-mount or handheld operation. Until now, the Ukrainian army did not have any mortars of this kind, whereas in NATO armed forces they have gained widespread usage.
NPF Adron (Kyiv) debuted its new RSP-1U Strazh missile attack warning system at the International Exhibition “Arms and Security” in Kyiv.
The system warns helicopter crew of the incoming missile attack while automatically shooting decoy flares. One of the system’s key components is the RD-01U sensor based on a digital array antenna designed by KSP Arsenal (Kyiv). The sensor detects missiles with an effective echoing area of 0,02 sq m at a distance of up to 2 km. The warning system is installed in various places of the helicopter’s hull so as to create a continuous radar field for early detection of incoming threats.
The system is most efficient in combination with other missile attack prevention systems designed by the enterprise: KT-01/02 Adros optoelectronic suppression system, KUV-26/50 combined chaff/flare dispenser and ASHCH-01 Adros exhaust infra-red suppression system series-produced for the Ukrainian Army. The system has passed factory trials, successfully suppressing over 20 attacks by Igla man portable surface-to-air missile. A pilot batch will soon be put to factory and state trials.
Thermal Vision Technologies (Kyiv), known, in the first place, for its products under the Archer brand, in September 2017 completed the design of a new optical devices detection and reconnaissance system – Sych 5K10 – and its portable version – Sych-H 6K10. These multipurpose day-and-night optoelectronic devices will be used to automatically monitor terrain and detect camouflaged optical sighting and observation devices. The systems determine the coordinates of and the distance to targets under conditions of limited visibility, rugged topography and urban terrain. Sych 5K10 can operate both in passive and active mode.
In the passive mode, the device monitors the area using television and thermal imaging modules; inthe active mode laser scans the relevant sector of the terrain. Portable Sych-H 6K10 is a multispectral optoelectronic binocular device with an in-built display to show the coordinates of, and the distance to, targets as well as the device’s operating modes.
The device consists of television and thermal imaging modules, laser module, laser range finder, GPS receiver, digital compass, control unit and a power supply unit. Given that the Russian aggressor has intensified its sniper attacks, these devices will, no doubt, be extremely helpful in disrupting such attacks before they are launched.
Last year, GAKHK Artem designed and tested new rockets for the Ukrainian Air Force. These 80-mm rockets were designed for use by attack helicopters and planes to destroy ground targets. They are fired from standard rocket pods holding twenty rockets at a rate of approximately half a second for all 20 rockets.
Trials of the new rockets fired from the upgraded Mi-8MCB helicopter:
NPK Progress designed a new precision-guided projectile Karasuk intended to precisely hit specific targets at a distance of up to 12 km. This precision-guided munition will expedite successful accomplishment of the relevant combat missions, giving the Ukrainian troops an edge over the enemy in modern combat and counter-battery warfare.
Karasuk is fitted with a semi-active laser homing seeker to ensure maximum target accuracy within the entire hitting range. Combined with ground and UAV-mounted laser target designators and range finders, the missile can destroy hardened control and communication centers, bridges, strongpoints and other targets.This smart weapon can also be used with 122-mm artillery systems, including D-30 howitzers and 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzers.
The new munitions and military equipment presented in 2017 and described in this article, though only a part of the whole picture, demonstrate well the capabilities of Ukraine’s defense industry. State-of-the-art technologies, innovations and extensive technical and scientific expertise combined with the development of human capital help strengthen the Army’s defense capability to be able to respond to all present-day challenges.
In the five parts of our review, we have demonstrated in sufficient detail that in 2017 Ukraine’s defense industry made a significant contribution to strengthening the general defense capabilities of the state. In 2017 alone, over 150 rebuilt and upgraded tanks, dozens of new BTR-3 and BTR-4 APCs of various modifications, and lots of other armored equipment were delivered to the Ukrainian Army. Ukraine’s Air Force received approximately 40 aircrafts (including 10 fighter jets). The Ukrainian air defense was considerably reinforced, too, with the anti-aircraft missile and radar troops receiving dozens of weapon systems and vehicles. Many other state-of-the-art projects designed in Ukraine are undergoing trials to pass into service. Ukraine’s defense industry is showing very good pace developing its manufacturing facilities, building new process lines, workshops and slipways.
The parameters of Ukrainian munitions and military equipment (such as aiming accuracy and speed, effective range, armored vehicles’ overall efficiency and their actual in-service life) are being thoroughly tested and analyzed in the real-life combat conditions in the east of Ukraine to make necessary improvements. Ukrainian shipbuilding industry is undergoing a rapid revival, strengthening the Ukrainian Navy with new combat vessels. Ukrainian rocket and missile engineering has been pushing forward to provide the Armed Forces with modern and powerful deterrent weapons. All this contributes to Ukraine’s military technology potential. Subject to maintaining the current pace, Ukraine will become one of the key and most powerful countries in the region in the near future.
Ukraine already has the end-to-end capabilities to manufacture armored vehicles, rockets and missiles, precision-guided munitions, small arms, air defense and EW systems. There are also well-developed aircraft building and repair branches, shipbuilding capacities. Ukraine receives substantial support from its western allies. The country’s defense industry intensively cooperates with NATO countries to improve its defense and technology capabilities, integrating into the global security and defense system. Ukraine’s defense enterprises are actively adjusting to international standards: many of them have been certified to ISO 9001 and are deploying AQAP 2000 quality management and assurance system. The course towards NATO membership is irreversible.
Four years ago, Ukraine made the final choice of its development strategy opting for the Euro-Atlantic values and had to face the brutal backlash from the Russian Federation making tremendous efforts to thwart the aspiration. The aggressor, using its military, political, economic and propaganda resources, is trying to throw Ukraine off course and regain former influence. But the Ukrainians choose to resist. Amid continuing Russian aggression,Ukraine is restoring anddeveloping its defense industry to protect the last frontier between the civilized world and the aggressor.
Only a strong defense industry and a powerful army with adequate deterrent capabilities can help Ukraine stop the Russian aggression, making it an exercise in futility, and guarantee the safety of Europe.
The publication features photos from: na.mil.gov.ua, ukroboronprom.com.ua, defence-ua.com, practika.ua, archer.ua, matrix-uav.ua, defence-blog.com, polukr.net, unian.net.
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